Larger portion of produced natural gas worldwide is traditionally transported to consumers by gas pipelines. LNG delivery chain (liquefaction, shipping, and re-gasification) took place initially due to lack of technologies of deep water submarine pipelining or because of substantial distances between producers and markets.
Situation rapidly changed in the last two decades when technology advanced and demand from new consumers started to grow exponentially. In 2015 it is expected that LNG exports will satisfy 15-20% of global natural gas consumption. During the last decade construction of new LNG production capacities came to point of balancing soared inquiries and in the next 10 years LNG production capacities may almost double, backing expectation that both supply and demand will steadily increase, while adding new relevance and dimensions of LNG in a broader economic sense.
Brought out chiefly as method of storage and transportation of natural gas, since early 2000s, LNG is anticipated engine fuel for heavy-duty vehicles and machinery, as well as, continuously evaluated as an alternative fuel to wide range of other applications. It is well received in power generation and compared to conventional steam boilers, combined cycle gas turbine units provides substantially higher thermal efficiency at lower capital cost.
Given that geography, feed availability, existing infrastructure and scale of LNG projects are different with custom tailored objectives put in front of project developers, key logistic and logic difference is whether the assumed plant location is continental (remote from the sea) or marine (sea and coastal).